연구의 선진화와 생산성 향상에

필요한 최적의 소프트웨어와 컨설팅을

공급하도록 노력하겠습니다.

필요한 최적의 소프트웨어와 컨설팅을

공급하도록 노력하겠습니다.

### 3DReshaper? Application의 주요 기능

#### 포인트 클라우드(Point Cloud) 입력 제한이 없음

포인트의 수가 증가할수록, 다른 소프트웨어와 차별성은 더욱 커집니다. 3DReshaper? 와 다른 소프트웨어와의 중요한 차이점은 속도입니다: 어떠한 제한 없이 수백만 포인트의 데이터를 다룰 수 있고, 3D 메시를 수초내에 생성합니다.

#### 메시 채색(Mesh Coloration)

메시 채색: 단순히 클릭 몇 번으로 포인트 클라우드의 색들을 여러분이 만든 3D 메시(Mesh)에 부여할 수 있습니다. 그런 다음 VRML2 형식으로 저장할 수 있습니다.

#### 등고선에 의한 메시(Mesh) 자르기, 폴리라인으로 메시 제한

메시 제한(constraint) 또는 등고선에 의한 메시 자르기를 이용하여 깔끔한 등고선과 정교한 메시를 생성할 수 있습니다.

오른쪽 그림(자동차 몸체)은 어떻게 폴리라인으로 메시를 자르는지 그리고 고품질 결과를 얻는지 보여주고 있습니다.

메시 제한 및 등고선에 의한 메시 자르기의 기능은 다음과 같이 응용됩니다.

- * 유한요소 모델링: 등고선을 갖는 3D 메시를 획득하거나 경계선 값을 부과할 때
- * 금형 산업: 폴리라인을 계산 및 분리 또는 선을 나누기, 구배각(draft angles-언더컷(undercut) 계산의 결과로 발생할 수 있음)을 고려하고자 할 때 사용됨.
- * 3D 애니메이션: 메시 분할은 모양을 각각 변형된 다른 조각들로 나눌 때 사용합니다.
- * 지반 조사 활용에서 구분선(Breaking lines)으로 자르거나 포함할 때 사용

#### 유한요소 분석을 위한 최적화

메시 채색: 단순히 클릭 몇 번으로 포인트 클라우드의 색들을 여러분이 만든 3D 메시(Mesh)에 부여할 수 있습니다. 그런 다음 VRML2 형식으로 저장할 수 있습니다.

이상적인 형상 요소는 삼각망(오른쪽 그림 참조)의 내부 및 외부 사이의 비율에 의해 정의됩니다. 3DReshaper?은 경계선 값 생성에 관계없는 삼각망 생성을 제한하여 각도를 제어할 수 있습니다.

#### Automatic probe radius compensation for mechanical digitalization

Ball radius compensation

- * For all geometrical shapes.
- * For alignment, registration and best fit between CAD geometry and ball centre points.
- * For surface comparison.

#### Registration, Best fit, cloud alignment, RPS

3DReshaper? provides the ability to place the model in a coherent coordinate system. This feature, also called "registration", "3D alignment" or "RPS alignment (Reference Point System)", can be used on any object: cloud, mesh, polyline, etc. to face many situations as for example:- When you want to place your model in a specific coordinate system according to geometrical characteristics: symmetry planes, axis, centers, etc. In this case you can make accurate best-fit of geometrical entities like planes, circles, sphere, and make accurate positioning using these elements.
- When you have an existing theoretical geometry, coming for example from an IGES or STEP CAD model and you want to compare or reshape a model using an existing model as reference. In this case you can use some particular points called "Reference Point" (for example hole centers or axis) to define your coordinate system. It is the reason why this method is also called RPS "Reference Point System" or "Reference Positioning System" in the automobile industry.

Making an accurate laser point clouds alignment. Here using overlapping surfaces of four clouds together with the 3D best-fit registration algorithm.

3DReshaper? provides some tools like:

**Axis alignment:**we lock successfully- 3 translations using one point also called "hard point" or "origin point",
- 2 rotations using a line segment or an axis,
- The last rotation using a plane.

**Point alignment:**we enter some point couples (measurement, reference) and 3DReshaper? find the best position so that each measurement point matches the corresponding reference point.**3-2-1:**This command simulates the layout of a model on an isostatic support. To obtain the best registration accuracy, point couples should be entered in a strict order called 3-2-1 method that successfully locks the 6 degrees of freedom. Overconstraint systems are also accepted and in this case the best solution is computed in a least squares sense.

- When you have a complex shape you can make a best fit to compute the best position of the raw data (measurement point) in the least squares sense.
- When you get different raw data (measurement point clouds) made in several coordinate systems, for example if the digitalization machine or the model has moved between different acquisitions. In this case, you can make a best fit "all together" so that 3DReshaper? analyses the multiple overlapping areas to find the best position of each individual part according to the others.

"3-2-1" alignment of a wireframe measurements set: the six arrows represent the movement of each departure point on a surface target and successively lock the six degrees of freedom.

#### Mesh import and STL correction

STL file correction : the shape on the left contains 55 meshes that do not correspond each other. The "mesh merge/fusion" function of 3DReshaper? gives in a few seconds a perfect result for rapid prototyping

(picture on the right).

(picture on the right).

- STL format (*.stl)
- Binary PBI format (*.pbi)
- DXF 3Dface format (*.dxf)
- Ascii POLY format (*.poly)
- OBJ format (*.obj)
- Ascii Leica format (*.msh)

It is thus excluded with 3DReshaper? that a mesh contains superimposed triangles or bad neighbourhoods,… The work of correction is thus dramatically reduced thanks to 3DReshaper?, and the software helps to obtain files ready for rapid prototyping, which contain perfect integrity, no holes, and whose triangles are all oriented in the same direction. Click here to know more about 3DReshaper? compatible formats.

#### Spikes elimination and non-manifold geometry correction

Spike elimination and smoothing with 3DReshaper?: surface is perfectly smoothed and irrelevant points have been deleted.

Actually, spikes are mainly due to a too high number of irrelevant points. This phenomenon is particularly developed in case of point clouds coming from optical measurements with poor lighting conditions, highly reflective surface, grazing laser beam measurements with multiple overlapping areas, etc..

Spike elimination can be made by two main ways:

- With the function “point clouds and meshes cleaning”
- Thanks to the dedicated function “spike elimination” which enables you to choose the intensity you want in order to find the best compromise between point suppression and shape preservation.

Non-manifold geometries (mathematically impossible geometries) are treated by 3DReshaper? with the same simplicity and speed: during the mesh import process, most topological defaults are automatically corrected.

#### Section calculation

Section calculation for automobile model construction.

The “Section calculation” feature of 3DReshaper? has three main goals:

- CAD surface or solid reconstruction of complex shapes: you just have to export section in IGES or DXF format and import them into a CAD software to rebuild surface or Nurbs using sweeping commands. Note: if the shape contains geometrical shapes like planes, cylinders, circles, spheres, etc., it is more rapid to directly export the results given by the feature "shape extraction".
- Contour line definition, very useful for landsurveying to obtain precise information about a terrain.
- Large scale reproduction of Works: section calculation enables to make big size models through construction of successive layers.

#### 3D shape global deformation

The deformation of the model is obtained by manipulation of the red balls, what makes the use of this very simple and visual.

Thanks to a system of grid, you can deform your models until you obtain the wished shape. This function is very useful also for the curvature correction, during the modification of a shape. Moreover, you can preserve borders during the deformation.

#### Several meshing functions : 2D, 3D, deviation error

- The 2D meshing, which is used when all the measured points are visible from a single point of view. This meshing technique is very well adapted when the measure is made according to a single direction (3D axis CMM or milling machine: see picture on the right).
- The 3D meshing, which is more adapted when we mesh a cloud of points scanned from various angles or a closed 3D shape (rotation of the model to be digitized, manual scanner, Multi-axis measurement arms) or a cloud of points coming from a more complex model all the details of which are not visible according to a single axis.
- The deviation error meshing is a process of meshing which allows to take points according to a maximal deviation error imposed by the user. The deviation error (or chordal error) is the distance between the theoretical surface of the model and the triangles (see picture on the right).
- The constraint meshing according to polylines

#### Meshing along curvatures to preserve sharp angles and radii

3DReshaper? gives a perfect result, by combining several different ways of reorganization, deviation error meshing and smooting. This picture shows how sharp angles and radii are preserved, in order to respect shapes.

This powerful technique improves dramatically the quality of the models:

- Greater accuracy of the shape, especially in sharp angles and small radius areas;
- better aethestics and smoothing of the shapes;
- lower number of triangles needed to reach final tolerance of the model.

- Mesh accuracy improvement: this process compares the 3D mesh with the point cloud;
- Smoothing with deviation control, that recalculate vertices with a maximal authorized deviation;
- Triangle reorganization.

#### Reconstruction of geometrical shapes, least squares method

In 3DReshaper?, methods are available to compute canonic shapes or registration moving matrix, but generally these mathematical "exact" ways are disappointing for many reasons:

These high level algorithms increase dramatically the point clouds processing speed and the model accuracy

- Point clouds are oversampled collection of points, then it is difficult to know which point should be chosen to make computation. Often more than 100000 points are candidates and choosing right points is very difficult.
- Points coming from measurement are rarely exact. A measurement error exists and the goal is to manage this error carefully.

- What is the best sphere, plane, registration etc. with this set of 100000 points?
- What is the max or average error?
- Could I obtain a better solution rejecting 10% or 20% of the points? but, which point to keep or to reject?

These high level algorithms increase dramatically the point clouds processing speed and the model accuracy

These geometrical shapes (plane, cylinder, circle, sphere,...) can be sued in different ways:

- To export inside your CAD system using IGES and DXF interfaces so that you can make CAD models. These shapes can be used in association with sections;
- To make geometrical constructions: projections and intersections;
- To make some measurement (and reports): distance between two holes, or two planes, flatness of a plane,...

#### Feature Line Extraction

Figure 2: teeth preparation line for a tooth decay treatment.

Figure 1: feature line extraction on a wall to separate bricks, using the "max ramification" option.

Feature lines follow the fillets and sharp edges on CAD model or mesh. Several options will give you entire satisfaction:

- Smoothing for a better presentation;
- Automatic projection for maximum accuracy.

This feature is an option of the 3DReshaper? software.

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#### Selection by polygons, cleaning, separation, fusion of clouds or meshes

First step of the cleaning process on a point cloud (automobile model)

When they are too numerous, these points can perturbate the meshing process and entail a poor 3D mesh quality.

3DReshaper? thus proposes a cleaning option, available for point clouds and for meshes (by triangle selection).

It is also possible to separate point clouds and 3D meshes or to merge them.

The mesh separation is very useful when we want to treat separately two parts of one single set. This segmentation process is especially interesting when two parts of the same object contain two really different levels of details. In this case, it may be more relevant to segment the model in two parts and to process them separately with specific parameters.

#### Boolean operation (surfaces or volumes)

- add one mesh to one other
- subtract one mesh from one other

All these operation are available in 3DReshaper? to process close and open 3D meshes.

#### 3D Inspection software, CAD compare, CMM control (1/3)

3D Inspection colour mapping showing distance between an IGES surface and a 3D laser capture. You can dynamically modify colours and threshold.

3DReshaper? Application software implements all features you need to perform 3D inspection and dramatically reduces the time to make 3D inspection colour mapping and reports:

- Inspection features are not a separate product or module like in many other 3D inspection software or CAD compare software.

All is included inside 3DReshaper? Application without any additional cost to pay. - Using point clouds to measure geometric elements like plane, cylinder, circle, sphere, boundarie, etc... You can calculate or extract features directly from point clouds and the inspection software gives you feedbacks like standard deviation (average error), tolerance and distribution. You can inspect or control a particular geometry or hole.

#### Noise measurement elimination, surface smoothing

The "orange skin effect" (see figure 1) produces a granular aspect on the surface of meshes. The functions of smoothing and noise reduction available in 3DReshaper? can remove totally this effect.

The first step inside 3DReshaper? is to select from you point cloud(s) the right point at the right place. This moise reduction filter has two main effects on your model:

The first step inside 3DReshaper? is to select from you point cloud(s) the right point at the right place. This moise reduction filter has two main effects on your model:

- the quality (surface state) and accuracy is improved;
- the weight of your 3D model (number of polygons) is dramatically reduced so that it is unnecessary to make further molygon reduction or decimation.

- 3D mesh with deviation error, without noise reduction.
- 3D mesh with deviation error, with noise reduction. The skin effect of the first picture is really softened.
- The final result with 3DReshaper? after curvature meshing and smoothing.

Ths picture shows smoothing with new vertex interpolation. During smoothing, 3DReshaper? controls the vertex deviation and preserve small radii and sharp angles.

The surface smoothing is a very useful function in 3DReshaper?, which modifies the triangle organization so that they "follow" the mesh curves. Generally, the main issue is to find the best compromise between noise measurement elimination and preservation of the maximum of details. The noise results usually from an excessive number of points, or from a bad digitalisation.

3DReshaper? solves this easily and very quickly, whatever is the quality of the original mesh. Thanks to 3DReshaper?, you can thus obtain perfect files, ready for manufacturing, and save a lot of time during the final polishing process.

3DReshaper? solves this easily and very quickly, whatever is the quality of the original mesh. Thanks to 3DReshaper?, you can thus obtain perfect files, ready for manufacturing, and save a lot of time during the final polishing process.

#### Mesh contour restriction, extended alpha-shape

1. First meshing step : all holes have been filled and the surface is closed.

2. absolute Alpha-shape : the whole mesh is processed and the shape is damaged.

3.The Alpha-shape according to 3DReshaper? : triangles are compared to each others in a defined neighbourhood, in order to respect the original shape of the model.

However, some holes can be detected which do not exist in the real model. The alpha-shape option developed by 3DReshaper? corrects this default by taking in account the triangle external circle: the alpha-shape eliminates only triangles which circle radius exceeds a user-defined maximum value.

3DReshaper? makes the difference with other software as it works very well with unsettled density point clouds. More than this 3DReshaper? compares triangles with their neighbourhoods in order to create coherent mesh (see opposite pictures).

The main benefit of this feature is the time saved in the mesh cleaning process.

#### Boolean operation (surfaces or volumes)

For instance, the “polygon reduction” function will help you to make fluid 3D animation (no disjointed movments) by giving you high quality and light files. Thanks to 3DReshaper? you can thus easily reduce your vertex and polygon number and obtain fluid animation while preserving its quality. Triangles will be better distributed in the mesh according to the complexity of the shape (see picture opposite).

#### Inspection and contour control

Comparison of two polylines : color mapping and label edition.

provides the possibility to compare two polylines or curves with the same procedures as for 3D surfaces comparison.

Like inspection and 3D surfaces control, you can create color mappings and edit labels on particular points and export or print customized inspection reports.

Some examples:

- comparison between a theoretical contour and a measured one (mechanical objects, tunnels, neutral axis,...);
- comparison between a contour measured at two different moment, in order to evaluate its changes;
- comparison of two contour lines (topographic domain).